STD, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, these terms mean infectious diseases.
1. Who is most at risk for sexually transmitted diseases?
Venereal diseases are more common among people who have multiple sexual partners and do not use condoms during sex.
2. What is the difference between veneral diseases and STD?
Venereal diseases include syphilis, gonorrhea, as well as diseases that occur in countries of the tropical climate (chancroid, inguinal granuloma, chlamydial lymphogranuloma), which have a sexual way of transmission. Sexually transmitted diseases are a broader concept that includes, along with the above, a number of other diseases of bacterial, viral, parasitic, fungal nature, there are about 30 diseases, including AIDS.
3. How would I know I have an STD?
STD can only be determined after a doctor's examination and a laboratory test that confirms the diagnosis. Absence of symptoms of the disease does not exclude STD.
4. How would I know my partner is ill?
STD have the following signs: purulent or turbid mucus discharge from the genital tract, itching in the genital area, sores or erosion on the genitals, mucous membrane of the oral cavity, frequent painful urination, rash on the body, enlarged lymph nodes. However, the absence of symptoms of the disease does not mean that the partner is healthy, since many STD can be asymptomatic or completely asymptomatic.
5. What are STD?
All STD are caused by various microorganisms, so there are bacterial STD (syphilis, gonorrhea, bacterial vaginosis), STD caused by intracellular pathogens (chlamydia, mycoplasmosis, ureaplasmosis), viral STD (HIV infection, genital herpes, cytomegalovirus infection, molluscum contagiosum, anogenital warts), parasitic (pubic pediculosis), fungal (candidiasis).
6. What percentage of the population has STD?
STD are widespread. Experts of the World Health Organization estimated that on the globe every sixth inhabitant is sick with any of the diseases transmitted sexually. Nevertheless, there are groups of people where the incidence of STD is much higher than the average among the population (men who have sex with men, women involved in sex work, drug users, etc.). The level of STD among youth is also much higher than in the population as a whole.
7. Where should I go to check for STD?
You can visit the dermatovenerologic dispensaries or offices, gynecologists or urologists. In such centers there are also an anonymous examination rooms for STD.
8. Why do I need to be treated with a partner if he feels healthy?
The disease can occur in an erased, latent form, while the person does not bother, and he feels healthy. Moreover, in such cases, even a single laboratory examination may not reveal an agent. Nevertheless such people are sources of infection for their sexual partners and if they have not been treated with a sexual partner, they can re-infect him/her.
9. If I fall ill with a venereal disease - do the doctors inform school and parents about it?
If a person falls ill with a venereal disease (syphilis and gonorrhea), neither place of study nor place of work is reported about it. However, those infected with syphilis or gonorrhea must stay away from work with children until recovery. If an adolescent teenager is ill with a venereal disease, then the parents should be informed of this. If it is a case of syphilis, then family members living in the same apartment with the sick person should receive preventive treatment.
10. How to protect yourself from STD, if there is no condom?
It is better not to allow such situations. However, even with the use of a condom, it can slip or tear. In this case, immediately after the incident, it is necessary to conduct hygienic measures and treatment of the skin and mucous membranes with disinfectant solutions (chlorhexidine, miramistin, cidipol). The contraceptive effect also has contraceptives for women of a new generation (Pharmatex, etc.) containing an antiseptic, in the form of vaginal tablets, suppositories and cream.
11. Is it possible to have children if I have had syphilis? if possible, when?
You can become pregnant and have children after you are removed from the register. If a woman is still registered for syphilis, during pregnancy she is given preventive treatment to prevent syphilis in a newborn.
12. Why does STD often lead to infertility?
Inflammatory processes in the fallopian tubes lead to their obstruction, as a result of which the egg cannot enter the uterine cavity, which is necessary for the process of fertilization. With inflammation of the uterine mucosa (endometrium), a fertilized egg cannot penetrate into it, and further development of pregnancy becomes impossible. Inflammatory processes often lead to miscarriages, to an ectopic pregnancy. Men can also experience infertility after suffering STD, due to the obstruction of the vas deferens.
13. Is it true that it is possible to become impotent if you had an STD?
Yes, it is. If the STD turned into complicated forms, namely there was inflammation of the prostate (prostatitis). Prolonged, chronic course of prostatitis gradually leads to a decrease in potency.
14. Is syphilis cured? If so, how long should it be treated?
Syphilis is curable, however, if left untreated, or if treated in the late latent or tertiary stage of disease, syphilis causes irreversible, destructive processes in internal organs, nervous, musculoskeletal system, sensory organs (vision, hearing). Therefore, syphilis should be identified and treated as soon as possible.
15. If you get syphilis, is it obligatory to be hospitalized?
Currently about 70% of patients with syphilis receive outpatient treatment, under the conditions of the so-called day hospital, when the patient does not stay in the hospital every day. The patient got all necessary procedures and tests and then goes home.
16. How can I get infected with syphilis?
The patients with syphilis may have manifestations of the disease on the genital organs, the red border of the lips, the mucous membrane of the oral cavity in the form of erosions, ulcers, and mopping eruptions. The disease can be transmitted from such patients without sex, that is without intercourse, when using a shared bed, towels, kissing, when smoking their cigarettes, using lipstick, common utensils (cups, glasses).
17. What is thrush?
Thrush (candidiasis) is a disease caused by yeast-like fungi of the genus Candida. The disease got its name because of excreta, which have a curdled character.
18. My friend has a thrush. Does this mean that he betrayed me?
Although the disease belongs to the STD, it does not necessarily occur as a result of sex. The pregnant women, patients with diabetes mellitus, people who received antibiotic treatment, who have decreased immunological reactivity, may fell ill with candidiasis. Nevertheless, if one of the partners has STD, both sexual partners should be examined and, if necessary, treated in parallel.
19. Can I be cured of herpes?
Herpes genitalia belongs to the group of viral STD, which, unfortunately, today are incurable. With the help of modern highly effective antiviral drugs, it is possible to significantly alleviate the symptoms of the disease and shorten the period of exacerbation, but it is impossible to completely remove the virus from the body, since it "sleeps" in sacral nerve plexuses, periodically exacerbating under the influence of provoking factors. In addition to antiviral drugs, it is necessary to use drugs that increase the immunological reactivity of the body.
20. How often should you be tested for STD if there is no permanent sexual partner?
It depends on the frequency of the change of sexual partners.
21. What are the significant differences in prevention of STD compared to HIV prevention?
Methods for preventing STD and HIV infection are the same, primarily using condoms for all types of sex and disposable syringes for injections. However, it should be remembered that with syphilis, infectious rashes can occur in areas that the condom does not cover (the area around the genitals, the anus, the red lip rim, the mucous membrane of the mouth cavity).
22. Can I get STD when I have oral sex?
Through oral sex you can be infected with almost any STD, except trichomoniasis, because Trichomonas do not survive in the oral cavity. Therefore, it is also necessary to use condoms if you have oral sex.
23. Are there "quick" treatments for STD?
Recovery of patients, who underwent fresh acute gonorrheal urethritis, can take one-stage treatment regimens, but in complicated cases, as well as with chronic or sluggish gonorrhea, such treatment is not enough. Very often gonorrheal infection is combined with trichomonas, chlamydia, ureaplasma or mycoplasmal. In such cases, shortened methods of treatment will not be complete.
24. Why is it so difficult to get rid of chlamydia?
Chlamydia is a microorganism parasitizing intracellularly, in addition, it is not sensitive to all antibiotics. Treatment of chlamydia often requires not one, but several courses, the duration of which should be sufficient (with gonorrhea dosages of antibiotics smaller). An obligatory condition for successful therapy is the examination and treatment of sexual partners.
25. Is it possible to have sexual intercourse during treatment of STD?
You can have sex only after the end of STD treatment and control laboratory tests. Treatment does not prevent the transmission of pathogens during sexual intercourse.