The vaginal environment of a healthy woman is a unique balanced ecosystem in which not only lactobacilli (lactic acid bacteria) live, but also dozens of different microorganisms: aerobic, anaerobic bacteria, fungi.
Anaerobic bacteria, when propagated, emit volatile substances with a specific “fishy” odor — this is the symptom of bacterial vaginosis. Normally, the proliferation of anaerobic bacteria is inhibited by beneficial lactobacilli. But when those that should be more (lactic acid bacteria) become smaller, and vice versa, those who normally should be few, multiply, bacterial vaginosis occurs.
Gardnerellosis (bacterial vaginosis) is a vaginal dysbiosis, i.e. a condition in which the ratio of microorganisms that normally live in the vagina is disturbed. Gardnerella is one of those bacteria that should normally be smaller.
The reasons for the development of bacterial vaginosis can be:
- Wearing tight-fitting synthetic underwear, tight-fitting synthetic trousers, i.e. creating obstacles to the penetration of oxygen.
- Abuse of panty liners and tampons for the same reason.
- Long-term use of antibiotics, which kill milk bacteria, as well as long-term use of hormonal contraceptives.
- Improper nutrition is a lack in the diet of fermented milk products, which are a source of milk bacteria for the body.
- Chronic intestinal diseases and other conditions that cause dysbiosis - milk bacteria come with food and live in the intestines.
- Immunodeficiency - the inability of the immune system to cope with malfunctions in the body.
- Frequent change of sexual partners, the presence of several partners.
To conduct frequent external hygiene is useless, because excessive intimate hygiene using ordinary alkaline soap or shower gel reduces the number of lactobacilli and provokes the growth of anaerobes. At the time of arousal, vaginal discharge increases and the intimate smell intensifies.
The first step is to suppress the excess of "bad" bacteria, the second is to populate the vacant niche with "good" ones. Therefore, first, drugs against anaerobic (oxygen-free) bacteria are used mainly locally in the form of suppositories and gels, sometimes systemically in the form of tablets. The second stage is the colonization of the vagina by lactic acid bacteria. A diet is prescribed that contains them (biokefirs, yoghurts, sauerkraut), additional preparations of lactic bacteria - inside and topically. In parallel, it is ideal to be examined for intestinal dysbiosis and, if necessary, treat it. Dysbacteriosis rarely develops in isolation and “from scratch” - as a rule, this is a common process for the body, and has its own causes and predisposing factors. If they are not eliminated, it will either remain or reappear, giving the impression of "improper treatment."
Urogenital candidiasis: symptoms, causes and treatment
Looking at the ubiquitous advertising of drugs against candidiasis (thrush), many men are absolutely sure that this disease affects exclusively the weaker sex. However, urogenital candidiasis affects both women and men.
This disease was called thrush because of the specific cheesy discharge. The causative agent of candidal vulvovaginitis is a fungus from the genus Candida. Yeast fungi of the genus Candida form whitish, curdled colonies on the external part of the genitals of people. Moreover, the risk group mainly includes immunocompromised patients.
In addition to white plaque on the genitals and cheesy discharge, the constant symptoms of candidiasis are burning and itching, as well as pain during urination and sexual intercourse. In men, in addition to all of the above symptoms, redness of the glans penis may be observed.
The causes of candidiasis are almost the same as in bacterial vaginosis.
Features of the treatment of candidiasis:
Currently, there are many effective drugs for the treatment of candidiasis. However, the course of treatment in each case is assigned individually, because candidiasis can be caused by various types of fungi of the genus Candida.
Looking at the variety of creams and ointments, sprays and tablets against candidiasis, all drugs can be divided into the following groups:
- local action: vaginal tablets, suppositories, creams, solutions
- systemic effects: tablets, capsules, oral solutions
Condylomas: treatment and prevention
Condylomas — many patients with the human papillomavirus are familiar with this term. The people, they are called "genital" or "genital warts."
Externally, condylomas resemble pointed, papillary growths on the skin and mucous membranes. They arise both outside and inside the genital organs in male and female patients, in places of constant friction.
Genital warts have a lobed structure and are located on a thin stalk. In addition to genital, there are wide condylomas that appear in patients with syphilis and frambesia.
The main cause of genital warts is the failure to comply with the basic rules of personal hygiene, since these growths occur mainly on the skin moistened with secretions outside the genital organs. In the event that the patient continues to ignore the rules of personal hygiene, condylomas appear in the intergluteal and inguinal cavities.
It is worth emphasizing that warts are a phenomenon that requires careful treatment, because they themselves do not disappear.
Treatment of genital warts
The main methods for successfully combating condylomas are:
- thorough genital hygiene, as well as general hygiene;
- complex therapy, which involves the use of drugs containing acids, as well as immunocorrection drugs.
In addition, patients resort to various methods of removal of genital warts, which include cryotherapy, laser therapy and dermocoagulation.
Herpes can be attributed, perhaps, to the most common viral diseases. It affects the cells of the human body in various parts of the body, and sometimes, it "lives" in the body for decades, in no way betraying its presence. That is, herpes can be safely attributed to the invisible enemies of our body, which can occur only against the background of other diseases or a general decrease in immunity.
Almost every person on our planet knows what a "cold sore" or "lip fever" is. Although there is a sexually transmitted herpes virus. This is the so-called "genital herpes", which is one of the STDs - sexually transmitted diseases.
The main danger of herpes is that once settled in your body, it forever changes the gene memory of the cells of your body.
The main symptoms of herpes are vesicles that occur on the surface of the skin and on the mucous membranes, which quickly "creep" over the surface if the patient is not involved in the treatment of this disease. After the bubbles burst, bloody sores form in their place, which can occupy a fairly large area. In addition, in patients with herpes there is an increase in lymph nodes. Genital herpes is more acute and painful. In addition, patients have pains in the lower abdomen, problems with urination, and in some cases, the temperature rises and muscle pain and general weakness occur.
The main treatment for herpes is taking antiviral drugs
The rules of intimate hygiene
Proper care of intimate parts of the body helps prevent gynecological diseases and maintain the reproductive function of women. The most important are only 6 rules of intimate hygiene, observing which, you can avoid many problems.
Rule number 1
Take a hygienic shower daily, at least twice a day - in the morning and in the evening. The rest of the time after going to the toilet, it is enough to use wet wipes designed for intimate hygiene.
Rule number 2
For intimate hygiene, use specially designed products. Do not use soap, even if it contains cream and moisturizers. The vaginal microflora changes the chemical composition if it is constantly exposed to it by means not intended for intimate hygiene. This can negatively affect your health. The delicate skin of the intimate areas begins to dry and peel, microcracks appear in which pathogens can easily develop.
Rule number 3
When using daily pads, a woman should change them every 3-4 hours. Do not use perfumed pads if you have allergies, dermatitis, or other skin diseases.
Rule number 4
During critical days, a woman should use pads that are suitable for absorbency. Sanitary pads must be changed every 2-3 hours. Before using a new pad, take a hygienic shower or, in extreme cases, use wet wipes for intimate hygiene.
Do not use tampons unless absolutely necessary. Despite the fact that in advertising they guarantee complete safety, toxic shocks can occur when using tampons. If you are not used to using pads, remember: tampons need to be changed every 2 hours.
Rule number 5
Use cream for intimate hygiene. It is especially important to use the cream before visiting the pool, open water, before swimming in the sea. These products contain antiseptic oil, which leaves no chance for pathogenic bacteria. Cream for intimate hygiene can be used instead of lubricants (moisturizers) during sex.
Rule number 6
Do not use douching unless your doctor has prescribed it. The same rule applies to the use of therapeutic vaginal suppositories, except for those intended for contraception.
Rule number 6
Wear only comfortable underwear. If you feel that the intimate organs are squeezed, you can stay in such underwear for no more than two hours. For everyday wear, linen made of soft natural fabrics is ideal.