If you think that the skin of a child is no different from an adult, then you are deeply mistaken. These differences exist and you certainly need to know them in order to properly care for her.
So, human skin consists of two layers — the epidermis and dermis. The epidermis is the outer plate, consisting of the horny and basal layers. The stratum corneum received its name because it consists of several rows of constantly desquamating dead, dead cells. In the basal row are new cells that replace dead ones. Under the epidermis is the dermis - a layer of loose connective tissue in which the sebaceous and sweat glands, as well as the hair roots, are located.
The skin of a small child has some features that make the baby more defenseless and vulnerable, namely:
- thinner, especially its stratum corneum (1.5-2 times thinner than in adults). As a result, the protective role of the skin is reduced. It also leads to rapid cooling or overheating of the child;
- it is plentifully supplied with blood, the network of capillaries in it is significantly expressed (and therefore it is so pink). This structural feature is very important in childhood, because it allows you to perform an extraordinary role — respiratory function;
- the connection between the epidermis and dermis is fragile, which contributes to the rapid spread of infection. Note that the spread of infection also contributes to a pronounced blood supply to the skin of the child;
- the skin of the child, as, indeed, the entire body of the baby, contains more — water. Therefore, it needs constant maintenance of moisture, because in adverse conditions, rapid loss of water occurs;
- the sweat glands in the baby are underdeveloped and very close to each other. This significantly reduces thermoregulatory and protective properties, contributes to the appearance of prickly heat;
- in the skin and subcutaneous fat of a small child, the content of cells involved in allergic reactions is high;
- the sebaceous glands, on the contrary, are well developed and function adequately, sometimes even in excess, which leads to the formation of "milk crusts" in the parietal region, and in the area of the nose — small cysts;
- in the skin of the child there are a large number of nerve endings: pain, temperature receptors. Therefore, the baby is very sensitive to any changes in humidity and temperature. And because all the kids love to be stroked, gently hugged. Your gentle touches are incentives for the development of the baby's brain.
Many parents wash their children several times a day with soap, believing that by doing so they protect them from germs. Meanwhile, the result of frequent washing is likely to be the opposite. Soap having an alkaline pH can disrupt the properties of the acid mantle of the skin, increasing the risk of infection. Since the skin of children produces little sebum and sweat, the restoration of the acid mantle of the skin of children requires more time than the skin of adults. In this case, it is better to choose mild cleansing lotions with a pH of 5.5, glycerin soap, as well as soaps containing vegetable oils (palm, olive). Most foreign pediatricians warn against the use of antibacterial soap, which can have a negative effect on the normal microflora of children's skin
When bathing children, it is not recommended to use bath foam (even baby foam), since it enhances the destructive effect of bathing on the protective layer of the skin. Instead, you can add a few drops of lavender oil, a decoction of chamomile, sage, fennel, rosemary to the water.
When taking care of babies, the “diaper area” requires special attention, since the skin there is in difficult conditions of high humidity and lack of oxygen. Many parents wash this area hard with soap, trying to make it clean and pleasantly smelling. Instead, it is better to lightly wipe the skin with a napkin with a small amount of oil and more often leave the baby without diapers.
Thus, child skin care must take into account all these features. To keep your child’s skin healthy, you need to constantly keep it dry and clean, take care of its hydration and let it “breathe”. And when choosing cosmetic and therapeutic skin care products, always consult a specialist. Make your choice in favor of products designed specifically for children that have passed dermatological control and clinical trials.